It’s been a crazy week with many crazy stories. Fears about the Stop Online Privacy Act created a massive online response, thrusting copyright reform into the national conversation. But while people were speculating on the future of intellectual property, the Department of Justice shut down Megaupload. Over the last five years, Megaupload had grown in popularity as an online “cyberlocker”. As broadband use explodes, the value of these companies is obvious. They are a user-friendly FTP where anyone can place files on a central server, to access them from a different locations or share them with others. When use a cyberlocker to store your baby photos or send a song you wrote to friends, there is no legal issue.
There might have been pictures of a two-year-old’s birthday party or basement demos somewhere on Megaupload, but review of the indictment made public this week shows the site knew their bread and butter was piracy. Although they had disclaimers on their site that users could be punished for uploading copyrighted content, the indictment claims that there was little, if any, enforcement. Instead, Megaupload acted to encourage infringement, primarily by creating an Uploader Rewards program that offered cash payments to the users who provided the most popular files. This, along with many more bad decisions detailed in the indictment, made the shutdown seem like an inevitable event.
There are many layers to this situation. It is a fascinating and frequently entertaining story, complete with outsized characters. One of the defendants Kim Dotcom (formerly Kim Schmitz) was living in China and New Zealand, and drove luxury cars with “GOD” license plates. Megaupload had an internal search engine to pluck whatever they liked from the servers, and one exec e-mailed another complaining his stolen copy of the Sopranos was in French. Employees described themselves as a modern day shipping service for pirates. In the wake of the shutdown, many have expressed concerns that this might signal an aggressive stance towards other sites that serve as cyberlockers. While it is unclear if that is the case, there are some lessons we can take to heart.
The federal government is very serious about delivering heavy blows to electronic money laundering, and are out to discourage anyone (including foreign companies) supporting it. Poker Stars, Full Tilt Poker, and Absolute Poker all tried to avoid the Department of Justice by operating offshore, but were sunk last year. The Treasury’s new Prepaid Access rules have enhanced company obligations to verify customer data, collect information, and comply with law enforcement. This is a sustained pattern that has continued with Megaupload, as the third count in the indictment is for money laundering. It appears it has again been proven that doing your due diligence on your customers and making sure that you do not let suspicious transactions go unnoticed will always be a good investment of money and time.
This case seems uniquely egregious, and it may be that worries about a wider crackdown are exaggerated. Most companies are not going to present such an obvious case for prosecution. Megaupload’s border hopping executives built a business model around attracting stolen content by offering cash incentives to users whose uploads produced traffic. They reveled in their criminality and invited the attention of law enforcement. There is a push to address copyright law and make broad, substantive changes, but most companies offering cyberlockers are not going to be waving a giant flag saying “SHUT US DOWN” like Megaupload did.
As we recently discussed on BitTorrent, the struggle of the government and the courts with file-sharing is part of a broad pattern. There is no widespread agreement on how to deal with these issues, as the hue and cry over SOPA proved. But it is hard not to be encouraged by the emergence of technology law in the national conversation. Last week, the two biggest stories were a piece of legislation that had yet to make it to a vote, and the shutdown of Megupload. If it gets people thinking critically on how to help the law catch up with modern technical realities, everybody benefits. Except Kim Dotcom. He is (probably) in big trouble.
Zack Bastian is an official contributor to Law of the Game. A third year student at George Washington University Law, Zack works at the Woodrow Wilson Center's Science and Technology Innovation Program and is a member of the American Intellectual Property Law Association. The opinions expressed in his columns are his own. Reach him at: zack[dawt]bastian[aat]gmail[dawt]com.